Hello friends, in this chapter of today we will get all the information about static electricity.
Introduction – The branch of physics under which static charges and internal actions are studied is called static electricitye.
Charge – Like mass, the basic property of a particular substance or particle, due to which the substance or particle exhibits electrical and magnetic effects, this property of the substance is called charge.
Charge is a vector sign. In SI system of chrage, the unit is coulomb’s.
The largest unit of charge is Faraday.
1 Faraday = 96500 coulomb’s.
The charge and number was given by Benjamin Franklin. The same scientist had invented the lightning conductor.
Copper metals are used in the manufacture of lightning conductors.
The inventor of friction electrode is called ‘Thales’.
The rate of flow of charge in the conductor is called electric current.
In a coulomb charge, 18 electrons are driven to a power of 6.25 × 10.
The work done in bringing the unit positive charge from infinity to a point of electric field is called electric potential.
The difference of potential between two points of an electric field is called a differential.
Its unit is joules per coulomb or Volt.
Ohm’s Law – Scientists Ohm established a relationship between the resistance present in a serial circuit, the variation produced between the ends of the resistance and the current flowing in the resistance, which is called Ohm’s law.
According to George Simon Ohm’s law, if the physical states of a conductor are stabilized, the current generated at the ends of the conductor is proportional to the current.
Coulomb’s Law – According to the rules of coulomb, the electric force or coulomb force between any two fixed and point charles augustin de coulomb particles located in a vacuum is proportional to the product of the quantities of these charges and the distance between them is inversely proportional to the distance.
Principal Of Superposition – With the help of Coulom’s law, it is possible to interpret the electric force exerted on another charged particle due to a charged particle located at one point. But the force exerted on another charged particle due to two or more charged particles cannot be explained by Coulom’s law. For this, imputation principles are used.
According to superimposition theory, the resulting electric force on any other point-charged particle due to two or more doped charged particles is equal to the vector sum of the coulom forces acting independently due to these charged particles.
Electric Field – A charged particle produces a field due to its charge, in which other charged particles experience force. The other charged particle in the field generated due to the charge of energy per unit charged particles, is called electric force, and the force experienced by the other charged particle is called electric force.
Testing Charge – The charged particle is always used to check the electric field, which is called test charge.
Test charge, ie the charge at which the amount of charge is small and due to its presence, the electric field being investigated is almost unaffected, then this charge is called test charge, which is usually expressed as q0.
Lines Of Electric Force – The imaginary and acute curves drawn to explain the design of electric field are called electric force lines. In other words, if a test charge is placed freely in an magnetic fields, the path on which the test charge tries to move is called electric force lines.
Characteristics of electric force lines – (¡) These are imaginary and acute curves.
(¡¡) If a test charge is placed freely in the electric field, these force lines represent the path on which the test charge moves to attempts.
(¡¡¡) If a tangent is drawn to the electric force line at a point, then this tangent shows the direction of the intensity of the electric field at that point.
(¡v) These force lines do not cross because two directions of electric field intensity at the same point are not possible.
(v) Electric force lines form open curves that begin at positive and negative charge.
(vi) These force lines do not enter the charged conductor.
(vii) These force lines always reflect the surface of the charged conductor.
(viii) This force line is like a elastic cord that tries to shrink. This is why there is attraction between opposite charges attract.
(ix) There is mutual repulsion between these force lines. This is why repulsion occurs between similar charges.
(x) If a surface is visualized in an electric force between charged, then the number of electric force lines passing through the area per unit perpendicular to that page is proportional to the intensity of the electric field.
Electric Potential And Potential Difference – Two physical amounts are used to express the characteristics of the electric field.
(¡) Electric field intensity which is a vector physical amount.
(¡¡) Electrical potential or potential difference, which is a scalar physical amount. Which is defined as follows.
When the test charge Qo is displaced from infinity to a point in the electric field, the work done against the electric field and the ratio of the amount of the test charge is called the electric potential energy, which is normally expressed by V.
Potential Difference – The difference of potential between any two points in an electric field is called a differential.